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Polygraph Evolution

In 1885, Cesaro Lombroso was the first expert who built a primitive polygraph called Hydrostigmograph.

Psychologist Hugo Munsterberg and British cardiologist James MacKenzie (1908), had an important contribution to these studies.

In 1921, John A.Larson made the first Portable Polygraph, which he provided to the police in the city of Berkeley, California USA.

In 1925, Leonarde Keeler, starting from the works of John A.Larson, created a modern polygraph.

Between 1938-1941 a total of 1.122 polygraph tests were successfully performed/conducted in the laboratory detection of the Chicago Police, guilt being revealed in 84% of cases.

Biodetection had a different history from country to country and experienced various forms of development and applicability.

If we start with the first country with the richest research in the polygraph field, U.S. polygraph experts as John A. Larson Leonard Keeler and John Reid have made remarkable efforts to improve default polygraph equipment and test results made with them.

Thus, in 1921 John A.Larson in collaboration with Professor of Psychology Robert Gisele, created the first portable polygraph which was able to record 3 vital functions:

  1. Blood pressure 
  2. Pulse
  3. Breathing

In 1928 Leonarde Keeler, created the "Keeler Polygraph", based on an idea borrowed from John A.Larson.

Later, in 1945, John Reid made the "Reid Polygraph" which was able to record 5 human psychosomatic reactions, namely:

  1. Blood pressure 
  2. Pulse
  3. Breathing Reaction
  4. EDA 
  5. Neuromuscular reaction

Japan, a country with strong technical development, followed the U.S. example, but did not improve the device, they used an American technique, only in the police field, in a few cases where suspects were examined.The results showed that the tests were 96.4% effective.

Israel, for example focused their research on improving the polygraph technique investigation method.The research results were provided by israelis specialists at the "Police Professional Scientific Conference-APA Convention" in 1973, in Miami, Florida.

Polygraph Technique in Romania

The first polygraph machine was purchased by Babes Bolyai University, the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, where  the first polygraph laboratory was founded in 1972 by psychologist John Bus, who became the first polygraph specialist on Romania.

In 1974, the Romanian Police used the first polygraph.

For a year, experimental examinations have been performed in cases with unknown authors where there was a little chance to discover the culprits, showing remarkable results.

Thus, the first study revealed that the polygraph system is a viable means of scientific research for the crime, and also gives the opportunity to explore and interpret new categories of "traces", inaccessible to any other means of judicial or forensic investigation, namely the information stored in human memory.

Following the example of technical and scientific police, the polygraph examination system was further developed in the intelligence services and government structures.

The first Private Polygraph Laboratory in Romania, was opened in 2000 by the team of the EURO POLIGRAF CENTER.

Even if, at first, the polygraph technique was regarded as an improvisation or a sophisticated means of investigation, over time and with correct information, we managed to change the negative perception, so that now a significant number of citizens have understood that the polygraph technique, in most cases, can exclude, from the circle of suspects, the honorable people, who for various reasons, often subjective and independent of their will, came to be suspected of crimes that they did not commit.

In parallel with the evolution of the polygraph in Romania, scientists have developed a system of certification for Polygraph Experts, and of course a coherent legislative framework for such activities .


Polygraph MUSEUM

The Beginnings of Polygraph                www.lie2me.net/thepolygraphmuseum/id15.html

Leonard Keeler Instruments                  www.lie2me.net/thepolygraphmuseum/id12.html

Stoelting Instrument Company              www.lie2me.net/thepolygraphmuseum/id13.html

Lafayette Instrument Company             www.lie2me.net/thepolygraphmuseum/id14.html

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